Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM E at Engineering ASTM E() [ Withdrawn ]. Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Refuse-Derived Fuel by the Bomb Calorimeter. Designation: E – 87 (Reapproved ) Standard Test Method for. Gross Calorific Value of Refuse-Derived Fuel by the Bomb Calorimeter1 This standard.
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There shall be no gas leakage during a test. The chairman of E Other thermometers of equal or better accuracy are satisfactory. The following precautions are recommended for safe calorimeter operation: Firing wire shall be mm of No. Save my sstm, email, and site URL in my browser for next time I post a comment. Firing Wire – Connect a measured length of firing wire to the ignition terminals with enough slack to allow the firing wire to maintain contact with the sample.
Due to the origins of RDF in municipal waste, common sense indicates that some precautions should be observed wstm conducting tests on the samples. Sample Holder – Samples shall be burned in an open crucible of platinum, quartz, or acceptable base-metal alloy. Equivalent platinum of palladium wire may be used provided constant ignition energy is supplied, or measured, and appropriate corrections made.
The apparatus should be shielded from direct sunlight and radiation from other sources. Adjust the jacket temperature to be equal to or slightly lower than the calorimeter, and run for 5 min to obtain equilibrium.
ASTM E711-87 (Re-approved 2004) – International Standards
If this limit is not met, repeat the entire series until a series is obtained with a standard deviation below the acceptable limit. Directions for these corrections are given in Appendix X2. The laboratory sample must be air-dried and particle size reduced to pass a 0.
If the bomb is lined with platinum or gold, all openings shall be sealed to prevent combustion products from reaching the base metal. Record this as the final temperature. Oxygen manufactured from liquid air, guaranteed to be greater than This pressure must remain the same for each calibration and for each calorific determination.
Continuous stirring for 10 min shall not raise the calorimeter temperature more than 0. Continuous stirring for 10 min shall not raise the calorimeter temperature more than 0.
ASTM E – 87 Gross Calorific Calorimeter – PDF Free Download
Gross Anatomy Cheatsheet Gross Anatomy. Observations, Isothermal Jacket Method – Assemble the calorimeter in the jacket and start the stirrer. It shall be constructed so that any water evaporating from the jacket will condense on the calorimeter. If, by accident, the oxygen introduced into the bomb should exceed the specified pressure, do not proceed with the combustion.
RDF products are frequently non-homogeneous. Calorimeter Water – It is recommended that calorimeter water be adjusted before weighing as follows: Carefully weigh approximately 1 g of the sample directly into the crucible in which it aastm to be burned or into a tared weighing ast from which the sample is transferred to the crucible.
Threads on the main closure should be checked frequently for wear. Its size shall be such that the bomb will be completely immersed in water e11 the calorimeter is assembled.
Detach the filling connection and exhaust the bomb in the usual manner. After the rapid-rise period about 4 to 5 minrecord temperatures at 1-min intervals on the minute until the difference between successive readings has been constant for 5 min. Current edition approved Aug. Base metal alloy crucibles are acceptable if after a few preliminary firings the weight does not change significantly between tasks.
Remove and measure or weigh the combined pieces of unburned firing wire, and subtract from the original length or weight to determine the wire consumed in firing. Wastes processed to coarse particle size with or without ferrous metal separation.
ASTM E (Re-approved ) – International Standards
The weight of the pellets of benzoic acid in each series should be regulated to yield the same temperature rise as that obtained with the various samples tested in the individual laboratories. Gross Income Philippine taxation gross income. Recommended hygienic practices include use of gloves when handling RDF and washing hands before eating or smoking. Calorific value is determined in this method by burning a weighed analysis sample in an oxygen bomb calorimeter under controlled conditions.
A superscript supers cript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. The maximum difference in correction between any two test points shall not be more than 0. Differential stem correction 5 1 0. Thermometers – Temperatures in the calorimeter and jacket shall be measured with the following thermometer or combinations thereof: The weight of solid fuel sample and the pressure of the oxygen admitted to the bomb must not exceed the bomb manufacturer’s recommendations.
Record the initial temperature and fire the charge.
This procedure is acceptable, provided it is used in all tests, including standardization. The maximum difference between any two test points shall not be more than 0.
Controlled room temperature and humidity are desirable.