The aim of this article is to draw attention to the work of a conflict analyst whose theory of ‘protracted social conflict’ – developed in a sustained. A Theory of Protracted Social Conflict. Edward E Azar, one of the forefathers of the conflict resolution field was the first to the describe violent events in the. 2 See Edward E. Azar, The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory Theory of Protracted Social Conflict and the Challenge of Transforming Conflict.

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Conflict resolution can truly occur and last if satisfactory amelioration of underdevelopment occurs as well. The effect of this stage is termed resonance, as each side has articulated their core concerns and heard the concerns of the other actors. This in turn emphasizes Azar’s theory that the “deprivation of human needs is the underlying source of protracted social conflict” where conflict is emphasized by the collective grievances of a group of people.

Protracted social conflict

The resultant disconnection of society and the state can be linked to the colonial legacy, which, “artificially imposed European ideas of territorial statehood onto a multitude of communal groups. They run a parallel government in many areas of the north and east of Sri Lanka. All articles with dead external links Articles with edwaed external links from April Articles with permanently dead external links Wikipedia introduction cleanup from September All pages needing cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from September All articles covered by Ecward Wikify.

In the Ceasefire agreement was signed, and the government agreed to disarm all paramilitary groups in the north and east. Since its independence in there has been a conflict between Sinhalese, which gained control over the Sri Lankan government, and different Tamil separatist movements. The identity needs of all sides are brought to the forefront with the goal of getting “the disputants to move from positional bargaining to interest-based approaches.

The war, that has continued since then, has almost completely disrupted civil administration in the northern province and caused economic devastation of the whole country. The dominant group ssocial itself from the needs of other groups, leading confict an even bigger separation between groups even within an ethnicity. This creates a “crisis of legitimacy” [9] in the governance prortacted these countries. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia’s norms and to be inclusive of all essential details.

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The researcher used the qualitative research approach, through which he was able to find the socizl facts, opinions, attitudes, conf,ict experiences about Rwanda conflicts from different informants in Rwanda through interviews and focus groups discussions. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The needs of the various parties are, in turn, the underlying causes of the conflict.

Studying protracted conflict leads one to conclude that peace is development in the broadest sense of the term. Views Read Edit View history.

Groups that seek to satisfy their identity and security needs through conflict are in effect seeking change in azzar structure of their society. Azar argued that the denial of basic human needs to a large portion of the population initiated instances of protracted social violence. But again, because of opposing interests all the proposals failed. From the research made, it has been found that Rwanda offers ample evidence to be referred to as a protracted social conflict.

Azar notes, “that it is the relationship between identity groups and the states, which is at the core of the problem. This page was last edited on 23 Septemberat Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 6— This invasion caused an exodus of aboutGreek Cypriots to the south.

This results in the domination of certain identity groups over others.

Protracted social conflict – Wikipedia

In contrast to the model of interactive conflict resolution ICR that Fisher proposed azawhich includes identity as one of many human needs, the ARIA model “keeps its focus more narrowly attuned to identity issues in particular. Identifying the root causes of the Rwanda conflict might provide a baseline for redressing the evils in the country.

The majority of Tamils live in northern and eastern provinces and claim them as their traditional homeland. This stage leads to the tangible resolution of the conflict. The division in changed the demographics of Cyprus dramatically, putting it in a position where federalist model would be the most appropriate. Scial Show full item record. The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. Such a need for structural change is likely to result in a violent conflict.

This first step focuses on the tangible “what of the conflict. After parties have articulated their animosities, the next stage is termed the reflexive—reframing stage where the “why” and “who” of confljct issue is examined.


Weaker states, like those often involved in protracted social conflict, conflcit to be more influenced by outside connections both economically and politically.

In the northern part declared Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which declared independence in as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprusrecognized only by Turkey. The fourth and final stage of the ARIA model addresses the “why” and “who” of the conflict, as well as the “how” of cooperation through the tangible “what” of solutions.

Such identity-driven rifts are the result of an underlying fear of extinction that often grows within vulnerable edwaard groups who live with the memories or fear of persecution and massacre.

Four preconditions are isolated by Azar as the predominant sources of protracted social conflict: It generally refers to conflicts described by other researchers as protracted protractes intractablei. Tamil secessionists saw the establishment of their own separate state as the only way for securing their people. But hostilities continued and even intensified.

The third stage is termed “inventing” and focuses on the “how” of “cooperatively resolving the conflict skcial its core through integrative solutions. Azar states that protracted social conflicts can be characterized by “incompetent, parochial, fragile, and authoritarian governments that fail to satisfy basic human needs.

The relevance of Edward Azar’s theory of protracted social conflict in the context of Rwanda

Journal of Peace Research 38 3— Therefore, to be effective, a conflict resolution framework must specifically emphasize the needs and identities of the conflicting parties. At this point, actors begin to see where their identities converge, and where they diverge. Confpict overcome the dominance of the international economy, the country in question must work to build institutions that can ease global dependency and stimulate domestic economic growth.

This involves the “political—economic relations of economic dependency within the international economic system, and the network of political-military linkages constituting regional and global patterns of clientage and cross-border interest.

Although the Cyprus conflict now lasts for a long time, its resolution does not seem to be close. Rothman developed a unique approach of conflict resolution that is specifically designed to mitigate protracted social conflict.